America invaded Iraq for national security purposes. The military objective was to eliminate the threat that Saddam Hussein presented to America with weapons of mass destruction ties to Al Quad and possible intentions to arm terrorists with these weapons in order to attack America on our own soil. These goals were within the capabilities of the armed forces and have been accomplished. The Bush Administration's attempt to use the military to establish a democratic government in Iraq has failed. It is obvious that the administration has failed in its efforts, or we would be able to leave them in their own capable hands. There are three ways in which democracies have been formed in history. It is necessary to understand the way that democracies have previously been formed in order to understand why our efforts have failed and to discover what efforts we can make in order to establish a democracy in Iraq.
Democracies have been established by people who became united in their own defense against a common threat to their whole society. The ancient Greeks established every kind of institution to govern a society in their city-states. The democracies established held requirements for people governed to meet in order to enjoy the full benefits of citizenship. Spartan male children were required to meet certain martial standards to become citizens, and only men could be landowners and citizens in Athens. The threat of genocide to the majority of Greeks and slavery for the survivors presented by the massive force assembled for this purpose by the Persians required all the Greeks to cooperate in their common defense for their survival. The Greeks began to realize the potential power of their mutual cooperation with their efforts to successfully repel the Persian force, and citizenship became opened to more people in their societies. Spartan reliance upon the non-citizens to provide them with their sustenance resulted in the decline of Spartan influence in Greece even though they provided the backbone for the Greeks military defense. Athens allowed any man who owned their own weapons and armor that was willing to fight in their common defense the right to be a citizen and prospered.
Democracies have also been established by people who became united in their own defense against a common threat posed by their own governments. America and England each established democracies and united to defend themselves against the abuses of power by the governing authority. The peasants and noblemen in England united to challenge the authority of their king and forced him to share with them the nation's political power. Their successful revolution resulted in the establishment of their personal rights and the formation of a Parliament representing both the peasants and aristocracy in the Houses of Lords and Commons. America reluctantly decided to sever our ties to England after diplomatic efforts to resolve the conflict failed and war was being waged against the colonies from several fronts. We established our government as a result of our successful revolution. American and English history shows that the people governed became united together in a common defense before they established democracies in their societies.
Democracies have also been established by force in countries after the invaders who conquered them fought wars. The invading power always suppressed any resistance to their own power before allowing the rest of the people to begin establishing democratic institutions to govern over themselves. The Napoleonic code of France, the civil code established in their own country, was imposed over all the nations conquered by Napoleon after he had established by might his own right to the authority to rule over them. We ourselves crushed all resistance in Germany and Japan, who we bombed into submission with nuclear weapons, before we attempted establish democratic institutions among them.
Our military faced little organized resistance by the Iraqi military or the Republican Guard. The national forces, which traditionally have defended nations from foreign invasion, appeared to fold under the strength of our attack. Iraqi soldiers threw down their weapons and joined the people, or they dispersed and took cover from our attacks. Saddam Hussein ran for cover and was discovered alone, without guards, and hiding in a hole in the ground. The meek behavior of Hussein from the time he was captured until his death towards his captors is totally out of character for him, and he has always shown himself to be belligerent and prone to violence. The fact that Hussein was discovered in such circumstances implies that he ordered his military forces to disperse and hide throughout the land as well. For the Republican Guard soldiers were personally loyal to Hussein, and he went to his grave setting an example for his soldiers to follow. We turned Hussein over to the authority of the regime we have established with our power for judgment, and he went right back into character during every court appearance declaring himself to still be the president of Iraq. That is the reason that the government we have established in Iraq faces resistance from so many different factions.
America cannot force the people of Iraq to become united by establishing democratic forms of government to govern over them under such circumstances. Our efforts to stomp out resistance to the governing authority in Iraq will not help them become united, because the forces that we never really faced or defeated during our invasion of Iraq are deeply entrenched in every faction, including the government. It is highly unlikely that any lasting reform will ever take place in their society, and we will discover it to be impossible to establish a governing authority in their country supported by our power.
The only way I can see for the Iraqi people to possibly establish any kind of democratic institution among themselves is for them to become united on their own without any influence from America on the government they institute among themselves. In order to do this we will have to do away with the form of government we have tried to establish for them altogether. We must withdraw our forces from their communities and cease our efforts to subdue the resistance with force. Then we can begin a staged withdrawal of our forces deployed to Iraq. We can bring about two-thirds of them home in the first stage as soon as this plan is adopted. Our forces remaining on the ground can relocate to defensive positions along the border of Iran and Turkey for sixteen months in order to provide them with border security for a short time. They are their own people, all Arabs living in a shared state. They will suffer at the hands of their brothers alone, or they will become united together in order to prosper together. It is a choice they must make for themselves. We will bring our entire force home in any case, for we completed our military objective long ago. Hussein is dead, and there are no weapons of mass destruction in Iraq. There is no other credible threat to our national security in Iraq, and we need to bring our soldiers home.